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Prep Modules

CUET Domain Syllabus

Unit I: Structure of Indian Society

• Introducing Indian Society: Colonialism, Nationalism, Class, and Community
• Demographic Structure
• Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions

Unit II: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
• Family and Kinship
• The Caste System
• Tribal Society
• The Market as a Social Institution

Unit III: Social Inequality and Exclusion
• Caste Prejudice, Scheduled Castes, and Other Backward Classes
• The marginalization of Tribal Communities
• The Struggle for Women’s Equality
• The Protection of Religious Minorities
• Caring for the Differently Abled

Unit IV: The Challenges of Unity in Diversity
• Problems of Communalism, Regionalism, Casteism, and Patriarchy
• Role of the State in a Plural, and Unequal Society
• What We Share

Unit V: Process of Social Change in India
• Process of Structural Change: Colonialism, Industrialisation, Urbanisation
• Process of Cultural Change: Modernization, Westernisation, Sanskritisation, Secularisation
• Social Reform Movements and Laws

Unit VI: Social Change and the Polity
• The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change
• Parties, Pressure Groups, and Democratic Politics
• Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation

Unit VII: Social Change and the Economy
• Land Reforms, the Green Revolution, and Agrarian Society
• From Planned Industrialisation to Liberalisation
• Changes in the Class Structure

Unit VIII: Arenas of Social Change
• Media and Social Change
• Globalization and Social Change

Unit IX: New Arenas of Social Change
• Media and Social Change
• Globalization and Social Change

Unity X: Social Movements
• Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
• Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Castes, Trends in Upper Caste Responses
• Women’s Movements in Independent India
• Tribal Movements
• Environmental Movements

Unit I: Variations in Psychological Attributes
The unit aims at studying how people differ with respect to their various psychological attributes. Individual differences in human functioning; Assessment of psychological attributes; Intelligence: Individual differences in intelligence; Theories of intelligence; Culture and intelligence; Special abilities: Aptitude — nature, and measurement; Creativity; Emotional intelligence.

Unit II: Self and Personality
This unit focuses on the study of self and personality in the context of different approaches in an effort to appraise the person. The assessment of personality will also be discussed. self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation; Culture and self; Concept of personality; Major approaches — Type and Trait, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavioural, Cultural; Assessment of personality: Self-report measures, behavioural analysis, and projective measures.

Unit III: Meeting Life Challenges
This unit deals with the nature of stress and how responses to stress depend on an individual’s appraisal of stressors. Strategies to cope with stress will also be dealt with.
Nature, types and sources of stress; Effects on psychological functioning and health; Coping
with stress; Promoting positive health and well-being.

Unit IV: Psychological Disorders
This unit discusses the concepts of normality and abnormality and the major psychological disorders. Concepts of abnormality and psychological disorders; Classification of disorders; Factorsunderlying abnormal behaviour; Major psychological disorders – Anxiety, Somatic, Dissociative, Mood, Schizophrenic, Developmental and Behavioural-Substance use related.

Unit V: Therapeutic Approaches
The unit discusses the goals, techniques, and effectiveness of different approaches to treating psychological disorders.
Nature and process of therapy: Therapeutic relationship; Types of therapies: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Cognitive, Behaviour and Bio-medical; Alternative therapies — Yoga, Meditation; Rehabilitation of mentally ill.

Unit VI: Attitude and Social Cognition
This unit focuses on the formation and change of attitudes, cultural influences on attributional tendencies, and conditions influencing pro-social behaviour. Explaining social behaviour: Impression formation and explaining behaviour of others through attributions; Social cognition; Schemas and stereotypes; Nature and components of attitudes; Attitude formation and change; Behaviour in the presence of others; Pro-social behaviour; Prejudice and discrimination; Strategies for handling prejudice.

Unit VII: Social Influence and Group Processes
The unit deals with the concept of the group, its functions, and the dynamics of social influence on conformity, obedience, and compliance. Different conflict resolution strategies will also be discussed. Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance; Cooperation and Competition; Nature and formation of groups; Types of groups; Social identity; Influence of the group on individual behaviour; Inter-group conflicts; Conflict resolution strategies.

Unit VIII: Psychology and Life
The unit focuses on the application of psychological understanding to some important social issues. Human-environment relationship; Environmental effects on human behaviour: Noise, pollution, crowding, natural disasters; Promoting pro-environmental behaviour; Psychology and social concerns: Aggression, Violence, and Peace, Discrimination and Poverty, health, the impact of television on behaviour.

Unit IX: Developing Psychological Skills
The unit deals with some effective psychological and interpersonal skills for facilitating personal-social development. Effective psychological skills: Observational skills, Interviewing skills, Testing skills, Counselling skills — empathy, authenticity, positive regard, and Communication skills — listening.

Politics in India Since Independence

  1.  The era of One-Party Dominance: First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties
  2. Nation-Building and Its Problems: Nehru’s approach to nation-building: Legacy of partition: the challenge of ‘refugee’ resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organization and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.
  3. Politics of Planned Development: Five-year plans, expansion of state sector, and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five-year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.
  4. India’s External Relations: Nehru’s foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India’s nuclear programme and shifting alliances in world politics.
  5. Challenge to and Restoration of Congress System: Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress’ victory in 1971 elections, politics of ‘garibi hatao’.
  6. Crisis of the Constitutional Order: Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of the Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organizations.
  7. Regional Aspirations and Conflicts: Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.
  8. Rise of New Social Movements: Farmers’ movements, Women’s movement, Environment, and Development-affected people’s movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.
  9. Democratic Upsurge and Coalition Politics: Participatory upsurge in the 1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. The increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. UF and NDA governments. Elections 2004 and UPA government.
  10. Recent Issues and Challenges: Challenge of and responses to globalization: new economic policy and its opposition. Rise of OBCs in North Indian politics. Dalit politics in the electoral and non-electoral arena. Challenge of communalism: Ayodhya dispute, Gujarat riots.


Contemporary World Politics

  1. Cold War Era in World Politics: Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non-Aligned Movement, the quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war.
  2. Disintegration of the ‘Second World’ and the Collapse of Bipolarity: New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states, and, Central Asian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India’s relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.
  3. US Dominance in World Politics: Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India’s renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.
  4. 4. Alternative Centres of Economic and Political Power: Rise of China as an economic power in post- Mao era, creation, and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India’s changing relations with China.
  5. South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era: Democratisation and its reversals in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India’s relations with its neighbours.
  6. International Organisations in a Unipolar World: Restructuring and the future of the UN. India’s position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organizations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?
  7. Security in Contemporary World: Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: global poverty, health, and education. Issues of human rights and migration.
  8. Environment and Natural Resources in Global Politics: Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India’s stand-in global environmental debates.
  9. Globalisation and Its Critics: Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalization. Anti-globalization movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggles against it.


Politics in India Since Independence

  1. The era of One-Party Dominance: First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.

Principles and Functions of Management

Unit I: Nature and Significance of Management

  • Management – concept, objectives, importance.
  • Nature of management; Management as Science, Art, Profession.
  • Levels of management – top, middle supervisory (First level).
  • Management functions – planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.
  • Coordination – nature, and importance.

Unit II: Principles of Management

  • Principles of Management – meaning, nature and significance.
  • Fayol’s principles of management.
  • Taylor’s Scientific Management – Principles and Techniques.

Unit III: Business Environment

  • Business Environment – meaning and importance.
  • Dimensions of Business Environment – Economic, Social, Technological, Political, and Legal.
  • Economic Environment in India; Impact of Government policy changes on business and industry, with special

reference to the adoption of the policies of liberalization privatization, and globalization.

Unit IV: Planning

  • Meaning, features, importance, limitations.
  • Planning process.
  • Types of Plans – Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget, Programme

Unit V: Organising

  • Meaning and importance.
  • Steps in the process of organizing.
  • Structure of organization – functional, and divisional.
  • Formal and informal organization.
  • Delegation: meaning elements and importance.
  • Decentralization: meaning and importance.
  • Difference between delegation and decentralization.

Unit VI: Staffing

  • Meaning, need, and importance of staffing.
  • Staffing as a part of Human Resources Management.
  • Steps in the staffing process.
  • Recruitment – meaning and sources.
  • Selection – meaning and process.
  • Training and Development – meaning, need, methods – on the job and off the job methods of training.

Unit VII: Directing

  • Meaning, importance, and principles.
  • Elements of Direction:

– Supervision – meaning and importance

– Motivation – meaning and importance, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; Financial

and non-financial incentives.

– Leadership – meaning, importance; qualities of a good leader.

– Communication – meaning and importance, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication.

Unit VIII: Controlling

  • Meaning and importance.
  • Relationship between planning and controlling.
  • Steps in the process of control.
  • Techniques of controlling.

Business Finance and Marketing

Unit IX: Business Finance

  • Business finance – meaning, role, objectives of financial management.
  • Financial planning – meaning and importance.
  • Capital Structure – meaning and factors.
  • Fixed and Working Capital – meaning and factors affecting their requirements.

Unit X: Financial Markets

  • Concept of Financial Market: Money Market – nature instruments;
  • Capital market: nature and types – primary and secondary market.
  • The distinction between capital market and money market.
  • Stock Exchange – meaning, functions, NSEI, OCTEI, Trading Procedure.
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – Objectives, Functions.

Unit XI: Marketing

  • Marketing – meaning, functions, role.
  • The distinction between marketing and selling.
  • Marketing mix – concept and elements:

– Product – nature, classification, branding, labeling, and packaging

– Physical distribution: meaning, role; Channels of distribution, – meaning, types, factors, determining the choice of channels.

– Promotion – meaning and role, promotion mix, Role of Advertising and personal selling; objections to Advertising.

– Price: factors influencing pricing.

Unit XII: Consumer Protection

  • Importance of consumer protection.
  • Consumer rights.
  • Consumer responsibilities.
  • Ways and means of consumer protection – Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to the Consumer Protection Act.
  • Role of consumer organizations and NGOs.

Unit XIII: Entrepreneurship Development

  • Concept, Functions, and Need.
  • Entrepreneurship Characteristics and Competencies.
  • Process of Entrepreneurship Development.
  • Entrepreneurial Values, Attitudes, and Motivation – Meaning and Concept.

Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit I: Human Geography: Nature and Scope

Unit II: People

  • Population of the world – distribution, density and growth;
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
  • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons.

Unit III: Human Activities

  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agriculture and allied activities – some examples from selected countries;
  • Secondary activities – concept; manufacturing: agro-processing, household, small scale, large scale; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries;
  • Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries;
  • Quaternary activities – concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities – some examples from selected countries.

Unit IV: Transport, Communication and Trade

  • Land transport – roads, railways – rail network; trans-continental railways;
  • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes;
  • Air transport – Intercontinental air routes;
  • Oil and gas pipelines;
  • Satellite communication and cyber space;
  • International trade – Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

Unit V: Human Settlements

  • Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

India: People and Economy

Unit I: People

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational – regional variations in growth of population ;
  • Migration: international, national – causes and consequences;
  • Human development – selected indicators and regional patterns;
  • Population, environment and development.

Unit II: Human Settlements

  • Rural settlements – types and distribution;
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit III: Resources and Development (Periods 30)

  • Land resources – general land use; agricultural land use – major crops; agricultural development and problems, common property resources;
  • Water resources – availability and utilization – irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods – rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced) ;
  • Mineral and energy resources – metallic and non-metallic minerals and their distribution; conventional and non-conventional energy sources;
  • Industries – types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries – iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location;
  • Planning in India – target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

Unit IV: Transport, Communication and International Trade

  • Transport and communication — roads, railways, waterways and airways; oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networkings – radio, television, satellite and internet;
  • International trade — changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit V: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal;
  • Urbanisation-rural-urban migration; problem of slums;
  • Land Degradation.


Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisations and Partnership Firms

Unit I: Accounting Not-for-Profit Organisation

  • Not-for-profit organization: Meaning and Examples.
  • Receipts and Payments: Meaning and Concept of fund-based and non-fund-based accounting.
  • Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Balance sheet from receipt and payment account with additional information.

Unit II: Accounting for Partnership

  • Nature of Partnership Firm: Partnership deed (meaning, importance).
  • Final Accounts of Partnership: Fixed v/s Fluctuating capital, Division of profit among partners, Profit, and Loss Appropriation account.

Unit III:
Reconstitution of Partnership

Changes in profit sharing ratio among the existing partners – Sacrificing ratio and Gaining ratio.

  • Accounting for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities and Distribution of reserves and accumulated profits.
  • Goodwill: Nature, Factors affecting and Methods of valuation: Average profit, Super profit, Multiplier, and Capitalisation methods.
  • Admission of a Partner: Effect of admission of a partner, Change in profit sharing ratio, the Accounting treatment for goodwill, Revaluation of assets and liabilities, Reserves (accumulated profits), and Adjustment of capitals.
  • Retirement/Death of a Partner: Change in profit sharing ratio, Accounting treatment of goodwill, Revaluation of assets and liabilities, Adjustment of accumulated profits (Reserves).

Unit IV:
Dissolution of Partnership Firm

  • Meaning, Settlement of accounts: Preparation of realization account and related accounts (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of a Spartner)

Company Accounts and Financial Statement Analysis

Unit V: Accounting for Share and Debenture Capital

  • Share Capital: Meaning, Nature and Types.
  • Accounting for Share Capital: Issue and Allotment of Equity and Preference Shares; Over subscription and Under subscription; Issue at par, premium and at discount; Calls in advance, Calls in arrears, Issue of shares for consideration other than cash.
  • Forfeiture of Shares: Accounting treatment, Re-issue of forfeited shares.
  • Presentation of shares and Debentures Capital in the company’s balance sheet.
  • Issue of Debenture – At par, premium, and discount; Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash.
  • Redemption of the debenture.
  • Out of proceeds of fresh issue, accumulated profits, and sinking fund.

Unit VI:
Analysis of Financial Statements

  • Financial Statements of a Company: Preparation of simple financial statements of a company in the prescribed form with major headings only.
  • Financial Analysis: Meaning, Significance, Purpose, Limitations.
  • Tools for Financial Analysis: Comparative statements, Common size statements.
  • Accounting Ratios: Meaning and Objectives,

Types of ratios:

Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio, Liquidity ratio.

Solvency Ratio: Debt to equity, Total assets to debt, Proprietary ratio.

Activity Ratio: Inventory turnover, Debtors turnover, Payables turnover, Working capital turnover, Fixed assets turnover, Current assets turnover.

Profitability Ratio: Gross profit, Operating ratio, Net profit ratio, Return on Investment, Earning per Share, Dividend per Share, Profit Earning ratio.

Unit VII: Statement of Changes in Financial Position

  • Cash Flow Statement: Meaning and Objectives, Preparation, Adjustments related to depreciation, dividend and tax, sale and purchase of non-current assets (as per revised standard issued by ICAI).

Computerized Accounting System

Unit I: Overview of Computerised Accounting System

  • Concept and Types of Computerised Accounting System (CAS).
  • Features of a Computerised Accounting System.
  • Structure of a Computerised Accounting System.

Unit II:
Using Computerised Accounting System

  • Steps in the installation of CAS, Preparation of chart of accounts, Codification, and Hierarchy of account heads.
  • Data entry, Data validation, and Data verification.
  • Adjusting entries, Preparation of financial statements, Closing entries, and Opening entries.
  • Security of CAS and Security features are generally available in CAS (Students are expected to understand and practice the entire accounting process using an accounting package.)

Unit III:
Accounting Using Database Management System (DBMS)

  • Concepts of DBMS.Objects in DBMS: Tables, Queries, Forms, Reports.
  • Creating data tables for accounting.
  • Using queries, forms, and reports for generating accounting information. Applications of DBMS in generating accounting information such as shareholders’ records, sales reports, customers’ profiles, suppliers’ profiles payroll, employees’ profiles, and petty cash registers.

Unit IV:
Accounting Applications of Electronic Spreadsheet

  • Concept of an Electronic Spreadsheet (ES).
  • Features offered by Electronic Spreadsheet.
  • Applications of Electronic Spreadsheet in generating accounting information, preparing depreciation schedules, loan repayment schedules, payroll accounting, and other such company.

Unit I: Introduction to Microeconomics

  • What is microeconomics?
  • Central problems

Unit II: Consumer Behaviour and Demand

  • Consumer’s Equilibrium: meaning and attainment of equilibrium through Utility Approach: One and two commodity cases.
  • Demand: market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, movement along and shifts in the demand curve, price elasticity of demand, measurement of price elasticity of demand – percentage, total expenditure, and geometric methods

Unit III: National Income and Related Aggregates Basic Concepts and Measurement

  • Macroeconomics: meaning.
  • Circular flow of income, concepts of GDP, GNP, NDP, NNP (at market price and factor cost).
  • Measurement of National Income –Value Added method, Income method, and Expenditure method.


Unit IV: Determination of Income and Employment

  • Aggregate demand, aggregate supply, and their components
  • Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal)
  • Meaning of involuntary unemployment and full employment
  • Determination of income and employment: two-sector model
  • Concept of investment multiplier and its working
  • Problems of excess and deficient demand
  • Measures to correct excess and deficient demand – availability of credit, change in government spending

Unit V: Money and Banking

  • Money: meaning, evolution, and functions
  • Central bank: meaning and functions
  • Commercial banks: meaning and functions

Unit VI: Government Budget and the Economy

  • Government budget – meaning and its components
  • Objectives of government budget
  • Classification of receipts – revenue and capital; classification of expenditure – revenue and capital, plan and non-plan, and developmental and non-developmental
  • Balanced budget, surplus budget, and deficit budget: meaning and implications
  • Revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, and primary deficit: meaning and implications; measures to contain different deficits.


Unit VII: Balance of Payments

  • Foreign exchange rate – meaning (fixed and flexible), merits and demerits; determination through demand and supply
  • Balance of payments accounts – meaning and components
  • A brief analysis of recent exchange rate issues


Unit VI I I : Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

A brief introduction of the state of the Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian

economic system and common goals of Five year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural

strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.

Unit IX: Current challenges facing the Indian Economy

Poverty absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;

Human Capital Formation How many people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development;

Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification;

Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies

Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Cases Studies: Health: Problems and Policies – A critical assessment;

Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit X: Development Experience of India

  • A comparison with neighbours
  • India and Pakistan
  • India and China
  • Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human Development Indicators

Unit I: The Story of the First Cities Harappan Archaeology

Broad overview: Early urban centres.

Story of discovery: Harappan civilization.

Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site. Discussion: how it has been utilized by archaeologists/ historians.


Unit II: Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story

Broad overview: Political and economic history from the Mauryan to the Gupta period.

Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the decipherment of the script. Shifts in the understanding of political and economic history.

Excerpt: Asokan inscription and Gupta period land grant.

Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.


Unit III: Social Histories using the Mahabharata

Broad overview: Issues in social history, including caste, class, kinship and gender.

Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the Mahabharata.

Excerpt: From the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians.


Unit IV: A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa

Broad overview:

(a) A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaisnavism, Saivism.

(b) Focus on Buddhism.


Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa.

Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi. Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism.


Unit V: Medieval society through Travellers’ Accounts

Broad Overview: Outline of social and cultural life as they appear in travellers’ accounts.

Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, why they travelled, what they wrote, and

For whom they wrote.

Excerpts: from Alberuni, Ibn Batuta, Bernier.

Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians.


Unit VI: Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi Tradition

Broad Overview:

(a) Outline of religious developments during this period.

(b) Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi saints.


Story of Transmission: How Bhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved.

Excerpt: Extracts from selected Bhakti Sufi works.

Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians.


Unit VII: New Architecture: Hampi

Broad Overview:

(a) Outline of new buildings during Vijayanagar period — temples, forts, irrigation facilities.

(b) Relationship between architecture and the political system.


Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found.

Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi.

Discussion: Ways in which historians have analysed and interpreted these structures.


Unit VIII: Agrarian Relations :The Ain-i- Akbari

Broad overview:

(a) Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries.


(b) Patterns of change over the period.

Story of Discovery: Account of the compilation and translation of Ain-i-Akbari.

Excerpt: From the Ain-i-Akbari

Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the text to reconstruct history.

Unit IX: The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles

Broad Overview:

(a) Outline of political history c. 15th-17th centuries.

(b) Discussion of the Mughal court and politics.


Story of Discovery: Account of the production of court chronicles, and their subsequent translation and transmission.

Excerpts: from the Akbarnama and Padshahnama.

Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the texts to reconstruct political histories.


Unit X: Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports

Broad overview:

(a) Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late 18th century.

(b) East India Company, revenue settlements and surveys.

(c) Changes over the nineteenth century.


Story of official records: An account of why official investigations into rural societies were undertaken and the

types of records and reports produced.

Excerpts: From Firminger’s Fifth Report, Accounts of Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, and Deccan Riots Report. Discussion: What the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians.


Unit XI: Representations of 1857

Broad Overview:

(a) The events of 1857-58.

(b) How these events were recorded and narrated.


Focus: Lucknow.

Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.

Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.

Unit XII: Colonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports

Broad Overview: The growth of Mumbai, Chennai, hill stations and cantonments in the 18th and 19th century.

Excerpts: Photographs and paintings. Plans of cities. Extract form town plan reports. Focus on Kolkata town planning.

Discussion: How the above sources can be used to reconstruct the history of towns. What these sources do not reveal.


Unit XIII: Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes

Broad Overview:

(a) The nationalist movement 1918-48,

(b) The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership.


Focus: Mahatma Gandhi in 1931.

Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings.

Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history.


Unit XIV: Partition through Oral Sources

Broad Overview:

(a) The history of the 1940s;

(b) Nationalism, Communalism and Partition.


Focus: Punjab and Bengal.

Excerpts: Oral testimonies of those who experienced partition.

Discussion: Ways in which these have been analysed to reconstruct the history of the event.


Unit XV: The Making of the Constitution

Broad Overview:

(a) Independence and the new nation state.

(b) The making of the Constitution.


Focus: The Constitutional Assembly debates.

Excerpts: From the debates.

Discussion: What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed.

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